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Magazine Layout & Design:
Charu Shridhar and Surya Sundaram
The 2017 STEAM Logo was designed by art student, Becca Westin,
along with teacher, Kelly Karr.
2017 Wheeler STEAM Symposium
Abstracts and Pictures
Sponsored By:
The Center for Advanced Studies
Foundation (CASF)
Wheeler high School STeAM TeAM
Dr. Ginny Berkemeier
Valerie Bolen
kathleen Briner
Dr. John CoDy
SerGio CorValan
Dr. Cheryl CrookS
aShley DeaSon
Danielle ereDDia
ray FurStein
miChael FuSia
laura Grier
Sharon hunt
niCole JoneS
kelly karr
JeFF kent
maureen klinkmueller
PatSy kraJ
leiGh anne kuhn
eDwarD lawrenCe
Dr. kate maloney
amanDa morton
meGGan muller
linDa PatterSon
SuSan PhilliPS
StaCy reGitSky
mary riCh
Dr. JaSon ritChie
aBBy ShiFFman
Dr. Sara thomaS
DeJla toDoriC
ChriS walSteaD
Dr. Dwayne waSSon
latriCe wiCker
nanCy williamS
Many Thanks
An event of this magnitude is the effort of many dedicated people that are committed to the
vision of STEM and STEAM and have volunteered their time and talent to ensure a successful ex-
perience and event for our students, staff and community. The Center for Advanced Studies Par-
ent Foundation Board has been committed to this initiative since the initial inspiration in 2012
for the rst STEM Symposium that was held in April 2013. For ve years, this group of dedicated
parents have supported this initiative and we look forward to the 6th Annual Symposium on April
25, 2018.
A big Thank You and Shout out to Jennifer Jordan-Lock, Jean Kisling, Liz Gainesford, Larry Ragan
and their team of parent volunteers that ensured the success of the 2017 STEAM Symposium.
Thank you to Charu and Surya Sundaram who have designed and created this magazine for all
of us to remember and enjoy for many years. Dr. Ginny Berkemeier gathered and edited all the
Abstracts that were sent in by our STEAM staff.
Most importantly a big shout out to the Wheeler STEAM Team staff that are committed to STEM
and STEAM and provide opportunities both in and out of the classroom for our students to make
relevant and exciting connections with what they are learning and present their products in this
venue.
Sincerely,
Dr. Cheryl Crooks
Wheeler STEAM Coordinator
STEM TO STEAM
THE CENTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES AT WHEELER IS THE FIRST
HIGH SCHOOL IN THE STATE TO RECEIVE
STEM CERTIFICATION
(
2012
)
, STEM RE
-
CERTIFICATION
(
2016
)
,
AND STEAM CERTIFICATION
(
2017
)
GETTING READY FOR THE BIG NIGHT!
STEAM SYMPOSIUM GUESTS
REFRESHMENTS & ENTERTAINMENT
STEAM SYMPOSIUM GUESTS
Table of Contents
Agriculture
The Beauty of Georgia Agriculture ....................................................................................................................... 16
Art Integration
Belgian Flower Carpet ...............................................................................................................................................17
Biochemistry
The Infusion of Nutmeg Essential Oil to Create Scented Crayons .............................................................18
Thyme Based Bug Repellent ....................................................................................................................................18
Using Hydrosol as Tick Repellent ..........................................................................................................................19
Uses of Ginger in Aromatherapy .............................................................................................................................19
Garlic: Nature’s Perfect Medicine ...........................................................................................................................20
Rosemary Herb ..............................................................................................................................................................20
Synthesizing Edible Bioplastics from Vanilla and Chocolate .....................................................................21
Baby Blue ........................................................................................................................................................................21
Kernel Keychains: Making Bioplastic from Extracted Cornstarch ...............................................................22
Synthesis of Chamomile Soaps and Bath Salts ................................................................................................22
Cinnaway Spray ............................................................................................................................................................23
The Use of Sambucus Nigra to Create a Salve .................................................................................................23
Synthesis of Lemongrass Oil ..................................................................................................................................24
Using Coffee Beans to Create Useful Products for Everyday Life ............................................................... 24
Peppermint Extraction ............................................................................................................................................... 25
Licorice Herb and Its Signicance to Everyday Life ........................................................................................25
Dyeing Yarn From Rose Pigment ...........................................................................................................................26
Fenugreek Leaf Face Pack .........................................................................................................................................26
Carvacrol Extraction from Oregano ......................................................................................................................27
Biology
Saturday Night Cell .................................................................................................................................................... 28
The Cell City Tribune ................................................................................................................................................. 28
The Jerry Parable: Exploration in Osmosis ........................................................................................................ 29
The Cell Times ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
The Cellular Election ................................................................................................................................................ 30
Medieval Castle Animal Cell Analogy Model .................................................................................................... 30
Visual Representations of Aquatic Ecosystems and Terrestrial Biomes ................................................. 31
Career Technology
Conductive Pathway ................................................................................................................................................. 32
Optimal Speed Calculations Based on Trigonometry ................................................................................... 32
Cell Phones Impacting Our Daily Lifestyle ....................................................................................................... 33
Geological History of Life on Earth ..................................................................................................................... 33
LM741 Audio Amplier .......................................................................................................................................... 34
The Bass in Electronics .......................................................................................................................................... 34
TED Talk Abstraction .............................................................................................................................................. 34
French Adjectives Quiz ....................................................................................................................................... 35
Kinematics Calculator .......................................................................................................................................... 35
Engineering
CNC Machine Project ................................................................................................................................................ 36
Investigating Modern Engineering and Design Trends through Furniture Making ........................... 36
PVC Tubulum: Creating Music with Science ..................................................................................................... 37
Human Trafc Congestion ......................................................................................................................................37
AeroFlow Racing - F1 in Schools ....................................................................................................................... 38
BB-8 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Harmonograph ........................................................................................................................................................ 39
3D printed RC car ................................................................................................................................................... 39
Motorized Skates ................................................................................................................................................... 40
Super Mileage Vehicle ......................................................................................................................................... 40
Kinetic Energy Bike .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Prosthetic Foot for Rock Climbing .................................................................................................................. 41
Rocket Fuel .............................................................................................................................................................. 41
F1 in Schools .......................................................................................................................................................... 42
Building a Dobsonian Telescope ..................................................................................................................... 42
The LED Cube ........................................................................................................................................................ 43
Bending Water with an Van der Graff Electrostatic Generator .......................................................... 43
Healthcare
Case Study: Kienbock’s Disease ............................................................................................................................. 44
A Case Report of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Complicated with Lower Respiratory Infection .......... 45
Emergency Medical Responder: Trauma Assessment ................................................................................... 46
Conquer the EKG ......................................................................................................................................................... 46
Respiratory Case Study: Coccidioidomycosis ....................................................................................................47
Internship and Research
STEAM Methods of Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 48
Communication of Scientic Research: Written and Oral ............................................................................. 48
SDP and EDP Assessment Art Data ....................................................................................................................... 49
Constructing Effective Rubrics and Evaluation ................................................................................................ 49
Rubric Evaluation and Creation ............................................................................................................................. 50
Statistical Analysis of Data ...................................................................................................................................... 50
Teaching the Scientic Method and Engineering Design Process ............................................................ 51
Data Visualization....................................................................................................................................................... 51
Understanding Validity ............................................................................................................................................. 52
Survey Lesson Plan Research.................................................................................................................................. 52
Data Visualization of Reliability ............................................................................................................................ 53
Validity and Reliability .............................................................................................................................................. 53
Language Arts
A Comparison of the Botched Autopsy in Chronicle of a Death Foretold and a Model Autopsy . 54
Math
TRI Your Change ........................................................................................................................................................ 56
Pot of Gold .................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Realm of the Starling: The Probability Board Game .....................................................................................57
QWERTY Game Project ...........................................................................................................................................57
Changing audio frequency to affect the appearance of water ................................................................. 58
Describing Art Realistically Through Statistics (DARTS) .......................................................................... 58
Aqua Rotations ......................................................................................................................................................... 59
Putting Professors .................................................................................................................................................. 59
Blackbeard’s Booty ................................................................................................................................................ 60
Land of Statistica ................................................................................................................................................... 60
Someday My Marble Will Come ........................................................................................................................ 61
Roll The Dice, How About That? ....................................................................................................................... 61
Skillz to Pay the Billz ............................................................................................................................................ 62
Wheeler Roll’Em ..................................................................................................................................................... 62
Real Life Applications of Sinusoidal Functions (Music Notes) ............................................................. 63
World Tour ................................................................................................................................................................ 63
Kandy Kerplunk ....................................................................................................................................................... 64
Physics
Aerodynamics Design ................................................................................................................................................. 66
Musical Audio Signals Encoded onto Visible Light .........................................................................................66
Mobile Project ...............................................................................................................................................................67
Alexander Calder Inspired Mobile ........................................................................................................................ 67
Visual Art
Visual Art ....................................................................................................................................................................... 68
Robotics
Robotic Art .................................................................................................................................................................... 70
More Fun with Sumo Bots ...................................................................................................................................... 70
RoBottles ..................................................................................................................................................................... 71
WASPbot: A Sumo-bot ............................................................................................................................................ 71
Elementary School
Participating Schools, Teachers, and Students ................................................................................................. 72
Water Rocket .............................................................................................................................................................. 79
Sphero Robotics ......................................................................................................................................................... 79
The Amazing Dog ID Project ................................................................................................................................ 80
What Drink Damages Teeth the Most? ............................................................................................................... 80
16
Agriculture
The Beauty of Georgia Agriculture

Ms. Williams
Bountiful and sweet, Georgia produces one of the most diverse crop yields in the South because
of its various regions and climates. Georgia has a total of ve regions: Coastal Plains, Piedmont,
Appalachian Plateau, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Ridge and Valley. The specic climates in each
of these regions allows for new crops to be cultivated and harvested. The purpose of this project
was to make a mosaic to help the audience visualize the different crops produced in each region
and the signicance of Georgia agriculture. Recycled colored paper was pasted onto a wooden
cut-out of Georgia. Outlines of the different cash crops were lled in to show the specic cash
crops in that region. Research was conducted to determine the climate in each region and the
cash crops that were produced in that specic region. It was learned that the northern regions
of Georgia have a signicantly different climate and crop production then the southern regions.
For example, in the Ridge and Valley region, the cash crops include corn and cotton, while in the
Coastal Plain region, the cash crops include peaches and peanuts.
17
Art integrAtion
Belgian Flower Carpet

Ms. Muller, Ms. Karr and Ms. Huston




Etienne Stautemas, a notable Belgian architect, created small ower carpets with begonias for
several years. In 1971, he was determined to produce a larger, more intricate carpet. With detailed
calculations and a creative team, Stautemas became the rst architect to create a ower carpet
out of begonias on the Grand-Place in Brussels, Belgium. Since then, every other year in August,
over one hundred volunteers assemble a large-scale ower carpet, using over 600,000 owers.
Within four hours, the carpet is ready to be admired by the public! French and Sculpture class-
es, along with Special Education students, joined together to create a Belgian-inspired ower
carpet. Our goal was to nd a way to show how the arts and French culture are related through
a physical representation of both! We were challenged with interpreting an original design us-
ing techniques of Origami, Kirigami, among other methods. Re-purposed materials include coffee
lters, party streamers, tissue and copy paper. The carpet includes over 1,100 handmade owers.
Similar to Stautemas’ process, much thought was put into our creative process. Things we consid-
ered were: the size and shape of the owers, sub-structure, cultural inspiration, and presentation
considerations. The nal decision was to show contrast by alternating warm and cool colors. We
also used various types of owers for variety. This project was a great way for the Art students to
learn more about French culture, and for the French students to use their creativity in order to
bring what they learn in a classroom to life!
Biochemistry
18
Biochemistry
The Infusion of Nutmeg
Essential Oil to Create
Scented Crayons

Ms. Phillips

Crayons are a fundamental part of ones child-
hood; however, many crayons contain toxic
ingredients that impede on a child’s safety.
Scented crayons, an unfamiliar product hardly
sold in stores, would allow users to relax and
concentrate while coloring. Creating a non-toxic
crayon complete with aromatherapy that safe
for all ages was the goal of this project. By mix-
ing grounded nutmeg and olive oil, an infused
nutmeg essential oil was produced. This in-
fused oil was then used to synthesize non-toxic
crayons with melted beeswax and liquid dyes. A
scented paper was then synthesized to create a
label for each of the crayons. The nal product
was a pack of eight scented crayons that pro-
duce vibrant colors while coloring. One concept
learned through this experiment was remem-
bering to use oil-based dyes for oil-based wax,
as nonpolar substances only mix with other
nonpolar substances. In addition, leaving oil to
infuse for a longer period of time can strength-
en the properties of the oil. With the concepts
and procedures learned during this experiment,
extracting essential oils to synthesize other
scented products could be conducted in the
future.
Thyme Based Bug
Repellent

Ms. Phillips

The product synthesized during this project was
a thyme-based mosquito repellent. There was a
need for a new repellent due to the rise of the
Zika virus, carried by mosquitos, the increas-
ing amount of harmful chemicals in current
repellents, and due to the unpleasant smell of
current bug repellents. To create this product,
thyme oil was rst synthesized through steam
distillation oil extraction which included dry-
ing out thyme overnight, muddling it, adding it
to 180°F oil, cooling it down, and then strain-
ing it through a sieve. Then, witch hazel and
water were added to the thyme oil together in
a spray bottle to make the bug spray. Through
this process it was learned that it is possible
to make a low chemical mosquito repellent.
Although the mixture was effective and low on
chemicals, in the future it may be necessary to
water down the solution or add jojoba oil, as
the mixture was sticky and could dry out skin.
In addition, the spray still had an unpleasant
smell which could be changed by adding more
herbs in future trials. This is how the repellent
was synthesized and what was learned.
Biochemistry
19
Using Hydrosol as Tick
Repellent

Ms. Phillips

This paper studies the uses of lavender, mainly
how it can be used to repel ticks. Lavender has
many uses, including several topical uses such
as to cure acne, heal cuts, and stimulate hair
growth. It also has a calming effect and can be
used to treat motion sickness when used prop-
erly. The experiment was adjusted, because the
original experiment involved using lavender
oils in aromatherapy candles. However, when
the water and oils could not be separated. Wa-
ter and wax don’t mix, so the candles could not
be made with hydrosol. Therefore, the primary
product was changed to tick repellent and tick
shampoo. In order to experiment with the uses
of lavender, the plant material was rst dis-
tilled and then the collected hydrosol and oils
were used to make tick repellent spray and tick
shampoo. The ratio of hydrosol to shampoo was
1:2.
Uses of Ginger in
Aromatherapy

Ms. Phillips

This project will seek to utilize the properties
of ginger, particularly in regards to its active
ingredient known as [6]-gingerol, for the thera-
peutic health benets it exhibits with a pleas-
ant smelling candle diffusion to help reduce
nausea and coughing within the area of ef-
fect. This project will use ginger, light (virgin
or extra virgin) olive oil, soy wax akes, and
orange essential oil to achieve this goal. The
basic processes include the shredding/nely
chopping of fresh ginger root, the denaturing
of carbohydrate connections and enzymes, the
extraction of oils with the application of heat,
the infusion of extracted oils with a carrier, and
controlled temperature changes (to reduce the
sinkhole effect caused by uneven cooling) with
both scented and unscented wax to ll a par-
ticular container. The result was an infused oil
and the desired therapeutic candle along with
an aesthetically pleasing marketing strategy
for this theoretical company. It was found that
ginger has a list of uses many entries long, from
inammation to helping in the prevention of
cancer, which makes it a viable part of this eld.
Biochemistry
20
Biochemistry
Garlic: Natures Perfect
Medicine

Ms. Phillips

In this project, the compound allicin will be
synthesized using garlic. Allicin has many medi-
cal properties and has even been referred to
a cure all. The synthesis that has been done,
while simple, is effective and will show off the
amazing properties of allicin. There will be no
tampering or altering the garlic in any way, as
there is no need to. The compound is formed
naturally whenever a clove of garlic is harmed
in any way. The manual synthesis of allicin from
garlic in a make shift laboratory did not yield
a large quantity; however, a small amount was
obtained and will serve as a visual aid and
proof of success. With more resources to rene
the process, a signicantly larger amount could
be obtained. This project incorporates biol-
ogy, chemistry, health-care, and culinary into
one project and will make a great example of
Wheeler’s program and how interconnected all
of the disciplines are.
Rosemary Herb

Ms. Phillips

The entire project was to utilize the herb, rose-
mary, to make a primary product based on the
research and properties that rosemary has. It
also incorporated chemistry via steam distil-
lation for the extraction of the oils from the
rosemary leaves. For the process to happen, I
decided to make it available for me to perform
the extraction at home instead of requiring
heavy equipment and time. I was able to use
simply resources that are easy to nd at home
to acquire the oils. Throughout the experiment,
I learned that there are many methods to ex-
tract oils from a plant and even though they
require different equipment, they still yield the
same product. Also, I learned that a plant like
rosemary has a variety chemical properties
such as esters that are benecial to the human
body. The information from this project can
further help me in my elds of interests in the
animal medical eld. It could allow me to nd
other resources that can be used medicinally.
Biochemistry
21
Synthesizing Edible
Bioplastics from Vanilla
and Chocolate

Ms. Phillips

This experiment used the active ingredients
of vanilla and chocolate, vanillin and theobro-
mine, to produce edible bioplastic candy wrap-
pers. Vanillin is responsible for vanilla’s distinct
sweet, pleasant aroma while theobromine, one
of the active ingredients of chocolate used, is
responsible for the herbs pleasing effects. Glyc-
erol and gelatin were also used as a plasticizer
and polymer, respectively. During the experi-
ment, trials were run to see which amounts
of vanilla extract and homemade chocolate
added to the plastic produced the best results
and made the most exible and rubbery plas-
tic. Each round three plastic were made for a
total of nine plastics of each type with varying
amounts of chocolate or vanilla extract in them.
The trials showed that ½ teaspoon of vanilla
extract and 1 teaspoon of chocolate when
added to the plastic mixture produced the best
plastic to make an edible candy wrapper.
Baby Blue

Ms. Phillips

In today’s society where many people try to
eat healthy, Blueberries are a great and easy
option. However, this project is not about the
consumption of blueberries, but about the dye
that can be made from them. Many products
today contain unnecessary chemicals and harm-
ful compounds that are not the safest option,
especially around babies. The purpose of this
project was to synthesize clothing for babies
that did not contain any harmful chemicals,
but instead clothing that was safely dyed with
blueberries. The blue pigment is primarily from
the molecule delphinidin, which was extracted
by boiling the blueberries. In order to make
the dye stick to the clothing, a process called
mordanting was used. This process involves
submerging the clothing in a solution of metal
ions which creates a bridge between the dye
and the molecules in the clothing. When the
dye and fabric were ready to be combined, they
were boiled together for about an hour. Then
once the fabric reached the desired color, it was
taken out and rinsed in cold water. The overall
result of this process were safe and non-toxic
clothing that babies could wear, and there are
no potential health hazards to these clothes.
Biochemistry
22
Kernel Keychains: Making
Bioplastic from Extracted
Cornstarch

Ms. Phillips

Starches are found in nature all around us. They
are signicant molecules in both plants and
animals, as they provide energy necessary for
organisms to live. Seen in both photosynthesis
and cellular respiration processes, starches can
be converted into several different forms. In
photosynthesis, glucose, a monosaccharide, is
formed from the sun’s energy and CO2, while in
cellular respiration, glucose is converted into
energy and CO2. Starches also provide tangible
advantages seen in bioplastics. This category
of molecules found in many kinds of plants,
including potatoes and corn, may be long poly-
saccharide chains that are perfect molecules for
creating a biodegradable plastic. In corn ker-
nels, the starch is made up of two main ingre-
dients: amylose and amylopectin. When heated
and combined with glycerol, vinegar, and water,
an amazing material forms that has variety of
uses.
Synthesis of Chamomile
Soaps and Bath Salts

Ms. Phillips

This project is used to discover the uses of
chamomile for various products. The relaxing
property of chamomile was adapted into cham-
omile soap and chamomile bath salts. Chamo-
mile’s active ingredient, a-(-)-bisabolol, has a
oral smell and reduces stress and inamma-
tion. Chamomile was infused into the soap and
bath salts through a process of oil infusion. The
chamomile oil was used in the soap through
a process called saponication where an ester
and an alcohol combined to produce sodium
salts and glycerol. For the bath salts, the oil was
mixed in the salts. The soaps were designed
into a ower pattern reminiscent of the shape
of the actual chamomile ower for an added
cosmetic affect. The salts were made of Epsom
salts and the chamomile oil, and were designed
to promote relaxation through its active ingre-
dient.
Biochemistry
23
Cinnaway Spray

Ms. Phillips

In this project, essential oils were extracted
from cinnamon sticks and added to other ingre-
dients to create a spray. To extract the oils, wa-
ter/steam distillation was utilized using kitchen
instruments such as a pot and a vegetable
steamer. Steam from boiling water with cinna-
mon sticks was forced to condense on a lid and
drip into a container. After extracting the es-
sential oils from the cinnamon sticks, they were
added to a mixture of water, witch hazel, and
food coloring. This created a spray that both
smells like cinnamon and repels insects due
to the properties of cinnamaldehyde, a major
component of the essential oils extracted by
steam distillation. The most prominent issue
was the lack of a control, which resulted in a
less precise and efcient experiment. However,
this barrier was not a major obstacle and the
experiment was successfully completed.
The Use of Sambucus
Nigra to Create a Salve

Ms. Phillips

The project was to make a product with the
use of an herb and is based around the herb
Sambucus Nigra (or Elder). The product made
was an Elder Leaf Salve. The materials were a
pot, jars, Elder leaves, water, olive oil, beeswax,
a strainer, ruler, measuring cup, and tins. The
product was yielded by oil/herb infusion, boil-
ing, cooling, mixing, melting, distillation, and
ltration. The result was, as expected, the Elder
Leaf Salve. While making the product, my moth-
er happened to burn herself. Once the product
was synthesized, it was applied to her burn. An
untreated small burn takes 3-5 days to heal,
but treated with my salve, the burn was gone
by the next afternoon. In conclusion, not only
was the desired result attained, but the product
seems effective. This project was very useful in
understanding the everyday application side of
biochemistry.
Biochemistry
24
Synthesis of Lemongrass
Oil

Ms. Phillips

The incorporation of essential oils and carrier
oil into body care routines and products have
been used throughout the centuries, however
only within the last few decades have the
physical and psychological benets of the es-
sential oils begun to be investigated and con-
rmed with studies. The purpose of the project
was to synthesize lemongrass oil from lemon-
grass stalks, and create a product that incor-
porates the oil. The product developed was a
lemongrass body scrub made up of a minimal
amount of materials, such as eucalyptus Epsom
salt, lemon essential oil, and lemongrass oil;
nonetheless they have a great number of ben-
ets for the topical usage. The lemongrass oil
was synthesized through the process of hot oil
infusion; this method of synthesis involves the
use of another oil. In this case extra virgin olive
oil was used as the carrier for the lemongrass
oil, not properly diluted lemongrass causes skin
irritation. As a result of this method two vibrant
smelling cups of lemongrass oil were produced
from eight stalks of lemongrass. Furthermore,
the effectiveness in use of natural remedies
and products compared to taking medication
are notable however it is benecial addition for
anyone.
Using Coffee Beans to
Create Useful Products for
Everyday Life

Ms. Phillips

Coffee Bean is a plant which has the active
ingredient of caffeine. It has many benets
but also has some drawbacks. Caffeine can
help reduce the risk for skin cancer; it can help
control pain, improve your memory, and more. It
also has drawbacks that include causing ner-
vousness, irritability, insomnia, upset stomach,
muscle tremors, and irregular heartbeat. The
purpose of this project was to make a coffee in-
fused lter that has the ability to lter out lead
from contaminated water. This product also
required a coffee infused oil to be made and
added to the lter to produce the best results.
As a result the lter worked averagely, but still
needs modications. Another product, soap, was
also synthesized using the process of saponi-
cation; giving a wonderful lavender coffee
smelling soap at the end. These products were
then marketed through an emotional’ advertis-
ing campaign.
Biochemistry
25
Peppermint Extraction

Ms. Phillips

Peppermint is known to be used to spice up
the taste in your favorite foods, but also to
help heal the body and soul. The experiment
done allowed for a discovery of the different
compounds and ingredients in peppermint and
designing a product using the active ingredi-
ent. The bath bomb that was created was made
by mixing together baking soda, citric acid, the
peppermint extract, and a carrier oil. The reac-
tion between the citric acid and baking soda is
what makes the bath bomb effective in what it
is supposed to do. The color of the bath bomb
did not change when mixed with the olive oil,
even though the olive oil had a different color,
but became blue with the food coloring, which
was surprising. When the bath bomb was put
in the water, a soothing and relaxing scent
was produced, which was the goal of the ex-
periment. Throughout this project, it became
evident that peppermint oil extraction is a
cumbersome process. The desired results did
show and led to a positive outcome. This entire
project helped put into perspective the inter-
connection of various topics being taught in the
Magnet Biochemistry class.
Licorice Herb and Its
Signicance to Everyday
Life

Ms. Phillips

This project explores the licorice herb –from
its history and benets/detriments down to its
scientic structure and properties. Based on
research, it was learned that licorice is an herb
that is native to the Mediterranean, southern
and central Russia, and Asia Minor to Iran. Many
species are now grown throughout Europe,
Asia, and the Middle East. This makes its use
quite exotic in the United States. In fact, many
“licorice products manufactured in the U.S.
actually don’t contain any licorice because it
has glycyrrhizic acid, which can cause complica-
tions when eaten in large quantities. Instead,
they contain an anethole called anise oil, which
has the characteristic smell and taste of “black
licorice. Licorice is a phenolic compound, which
is why it accounts for many of the dening
aromatic characteristics of spices and herbs.
In addition, the list of both complications and
benets is extensive. While the drawback of
licorice root is mainly of uid retention within
the kidney, it is also proven to eradicate condi-
tions like heartburn, adrenal fatigue, and sore
throats.
Biochemistry
26
Dyeing Yarn From Rose
Pigment

Ms. Phillips

Roses are one of the most well-known owers.
They are used in weddings and other celebra-
tions, and given to loved ones on Valentine’s
Day, Mother’s Day, and other holidays. They are
known for representing beauty and love in their
true (ower) form; but many people don’t know
that roses have many other versatile charac-
teristics. Not only can rose petals be eaten and
rose oil extracted for use in recipes, roses can
also be used to dye yarn, which was the point
of this experiment. Roses were stripped of their
petals, which were then simmered for an hour
to reach the optimal color extracted. Wool yarn
was then soaked in the dye for 24 hours. The
yarn was then wrung out and dried. Once the
yarn was nished drying, it could be knitted
into a hat. The yarn dyed a pink-red color that
lasted long after it was wrung out. The knitted
hat turned out to be well made and the color
stayed present. It was learned that Anthocya-
nins cause the color in rose petals, and that
owers with Anthocyanins make good natural
dyes due to their high solubility in water.
Fenugreek Leaf Face Pack

Ms. Phillips

Fenugreek, also known as Trigonella foenum-
graecum, is a plant commonly used in Arabic
and Indian dishes. The active ingredient in
fenugreek is (4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine which
aids in normalizing glucose metabolism. Other
benets of fenugreek leaves is it aids in weight
loss, it is good for the breast milk of breastfeed-
ing mothers, it stabilizes blood sugar levels,
it aids in conditioning the hair and reduc-
ing dandruff, and it helps to have clear skin.
A fenugreek face pack does wonders for your
face - it gets rid of dark spots and blemishes
on your skin, and it is great for acne prone skin.
To make the face pack, the following materi-
als are needed: fenugreek leaves, boiled water,
honey, and food processor or mortar and pestle.
To begin with, add a little boiled water to a
few fenugreek leaves. Then, grind this mixture
and extract the juice from the grinded mixture.
Next, add a teaspoon of honey for a table spoon
of juice. Finally, apply this mixture on your face,
let it dry, and then wash it off. Regular use of
this face pack will rid your skin of dark spots
and blemishes, and it will give you awless and
clear skin.
Biochemistry
27
Carvacrol Extraction from Oregano

Ms. Phillips

The goal of this experiment was to use the materials at the experimenter’s disposal to extract the
maximum amount of carvacrol from oregano leaves. The oregano leaves were placed in a non-
polar, household solvent (in this case olive oil) and left to allow the carvacrol and other essential
oils to seep out of the leaves. The resulting solution, after being kept for one to two weeks, wasp
ltered through household lters (in this case coffee lters). During the extraction process, the
solution appeared to change color slightly as well as gave off the odor of oregano after being left
for a week. While the ltering process was not full proof, the ltered solution gave off a stronger
odor of oregano which means that the rudimentary ltering method was still somewhat effective.
One part that would denitely be xed would be the ltering system, coffee lters did not appear
to lter out the olive oil while keeping the carvacrol.
Biology
28
Biology
Saturday Night Cell

Ms. Phillips

When people think of a cell project, a physical
model or essay usually comes to mind. We de-
cided to explore the new medium of video. This
lm was shot at home using a green screen,
a camera, and editing software for the nal
product. It’s mainly about apoptosis, the sui-
cide” of a cell triggered when genetic mistakes
are detected. We compared a cell to a house
and related the organelles to different parts
of the house. As a leading Segway, we have a
studio scene where we are setting up for the
apoptosis shot. The nal video is a casual and
informative lm that is packed with humor
and facts. Each scene is meshed together with
smooth cuts and fades, and some special ef-
fects were added to liven it up. We were very
pleased with the nal result and hope to pro-
duce more videos in the future. We also learned
more about the topic of apoptosis in the mak-
ing of this lm.
The Cell City Tribune

Ms. Phillips

The project created to display the cell was an
online newspaper. A newspaper was the best
way to display this information as it allowed
for creative ideas to be instituted. Pictures
found online were used to display the informa-
tion in order to provide a better visual compre-
hension. The method used was to display a city
as the cell, which gave a real-life connection
and an easier understanding for the viewer. An
example of this is how, on the rst page, poli-
tics were discussed, but instead of a president
or a mayor, a nucleus was used. This gave a
distinct notion that the cell’s nucleus is similar
to a control center. Research was necessary to
further study the cell and create analogies to
represent the organelles. The relationship be-
tween organelles could only be found by exam-
ining what each organelle is composed of, how
it functions in the cell, and how it cooperates
with its fellow organelles to benet the cell.
Overall, it was learned that the cell plays an
enormous role in how organisms function and
adapt to their environment and that each spe-
cic organelle in the cell plays a specic role
that helps to create a strong, functional cell.
Biology
29
The Jerry Parable:
Exploration in Osmosis

Ms. Phillips

Combining talent for programming in Scratch
and knowledge of osmosis and tonicity, an im-
provised educational animation giving a broad
overview of osmosis and tonicity was created
independently. The information is presented
in a comedic and visual way to appeal to
people of all ages, and gives a general enough
overview to teach this subject even if there is
no prior knowledge of biology. To create this
animation, the online Scratch editor was used,
working in increments each day. Sprites were
drawn using the included sprite editor and
a Wacom Bamboo drawing pad. Images and
music were obtained primarily through the
internet, and some gures were used from the
provided textbook. Through this project, rened
skill in Scratch was developed, along with a
more concrete understanding of cell processes.
Using the knowledge obtained from this proj-
ect, more in-depth and polished animations
can be made, along with more adroit lessons.
The Cell Times

Ms. Phillips

Cells are an integral vessel for the function of
life, and the various organelles they house are
what make life possible in plants and animals.
The purpose of this project was to identify the
structure and function of these various organ-
elles found in plant and animal cells; this infor-
mation was conveyed by way of a newspaper.
The newspaper contains numerous articles that
represent the structure and function of cell or-
ganelles through the use of metaphor, compar-
ing human life to the life cycle of a cell and the
function of its organelles. The software, Mi-
crosoft Publisher, was used to create the news-
paper, and it was printed to t the determined
size format. All of the information required
for creating the newspaper was learned previ-
ously in class, and all of the images used in
the newspaper were cited in MLA format. The
newspaper paper was intended to be a both
humorous and informational work, and it ended
up achieving both of these goals. Throughout
the project the importance of cellular organ-
elles was learned along with how they benet
life and make it possible.
Biology
30
The Cellular Election

Ms. Ereddia

Every year, Magnet Freshmen must take Mag-
net Biology; in this class students must com-
plete a project based on cells. Students are
given various options of creative prompts such
as Cell Newspaper or Video; however, if stu-
dents were able to come up with another idea
for their project, they could do that alternative
if it was approved. Given that the 2016 elec-
tion was a topic of great discussion during the
making of this project, the project showcases
various organelles running for a hypothetical
Cell President” position. To provide the feeling
of a presidential election, political posters and
short speeches were written for each organelle.
Using electronic sources like Google Drawings
and Docs, these posters and speeches could
be created. The posters were then profession-
ally printed with each speech attached to the
back of its respective poster. The original result
was a total of nine posters with their speeches
attached. Now, the best posters and speeches
are displayed on a triboard, and all of the post-
ers and speeches are displayed in booklets. As
one of the few projects of Magnet Biology, this
assignment reinforced students’ learning of cel-
lular organelles while forcing them to be cre-
ative as well as effectively manage their time.
Medieval Castle Animal
Cell Analogy Model

Ms. Phillips

Cells are the building blocks of life. There are
organelles make up the cell and carry out spe-
cic functions that are necessary for cell life.
The purpose of this project was to create an
analogy comparing an animal or plant cell to
something that accurately represents the dif-
ferent aspects of the cell. The model created
was an analogy between and animal cell and
a medieval castle. The model was built using
poster board and cardboard that were then hot
glued together. Fabric and other arts and craft
supplies were used to add smaller details to
make the castle look more realistic. It was then
labeled with the part of the castle and what
aspect it embodies of a cell. This project helped
create a better understanding of cells by com-
paring its parts to something that is easier to
grasp the concept of.
Biology
31
Visual Representations of Aquatic Ecosystems and
Terrestrial Biomes

Mrs. Kraj

Aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial biome vocabulary can be reinforced with visual representa-
tions. Learning details can be conveyed used artistic forms. By using artistic expression, we were
able to show that we understood the concepts associated with the vocabulary terms. This project-
ed used different art materials, techniques, and processes. Watercolor paints, acrylic paints, and
paper modeling were chosen. Pointillism, Impressionism, and Realism techniques were incorpo-
rated in the paintings. The results included paintings and models illustrating details of aquatic
ecosystems and terrestrial biomes. We were able to show that we understood the concepts de-
picted. Savanna, Desert, and Temperate Deciduous Forest were the biomes showcased. A three
dimensional model of a shark was built to illustrate the term nekton.
Career TeChnology
32
cAreer technology
Conductive Pathway

Mr. Fusia

The heart is arguably the most important organ
in the body. It is controlled by the conductive
pathway which produces electrical impulses
sent out by pacemaker cells. The pulses which
begin the conductive pathway are transmitted
through the heart, causing the chambers of the
heart to contract. Blood is pumped through
the body when the chambers of the heart are
forced to contract. A asher kit, a 555 timer
IC, a CD4017 IC, a potentiometer, ten LEDs, and
several capacitors and resistors were used to
demonstrate the conductive pathway of the
heart. A colored diagram and LEDs indicating
the path and location of important spots on the
conductive pathway of the heart were included.
Knowledge of digital circuits and human anat-
omy was required for this project. This model
best represents the conductive pathway by
illustrating the exact passage of electrical cur-
rent through the heart.
Optimal Speed
Calculations Based on
Trigonometry

Dr. Maloney

Using a Razor motorbike, the average speed,
length of the hill, and hill angle were mea-
sured to help determine which factors affect
the motorbike’s top and optimal speed. Using
these calculations, we determined the ideal
conditions to drive the bike at the fastest speed.
Trigonometric ratios were used to determine
the missing values on the hill. The Razor mo-
torbike, measuring tape, chalk and recording
devices were the main components in testing
and experimenting with the hypothesis and
motorbike. 25 feet was measured down a hill
additively until the section of the hill counted
was 125 or 150 feet. This kept the momentum
factor at a minimum. The results of the data
analysis showed that the fastest average speed
possible is 12.75 mph, and this was on a 14.6
degree hill. The next steepest hill was 7.5 de-
grees, and the average speed for the motorbike
was 12.53 mph. This shows that the motorbike
has a maximum speed, no matter the condi-
tions. This could be a safety feature, or a me-
chanical limiting factor.
Career TeChnology
33
Cell Phones Impacting Our
Daily Lifestyle

Dr. Maloney

Cell phones are a part of the human lifestyle,
and are the things humans spend the most
time with. They help with daily tasks, but can
also be the rst source of problems as well. In
the project conducted, the problems caused
by cell phones were highlighted and analyzed,
along with suggesting proper solutions. Not
only were problems discussed, but prior ex-
periments were analyzed for accuracy through
trials, and provided extra information. Results
from previously completed studies, as well per-
sonal interviews, helped analyze and relate cell
phone problems to the modern lifestyle. Results
from the project were as hypothesized, where
extreme use of cell phones showed signicant
damage to the human brain, but controlled
uses of cellular devices was helpful to human
activities. In conclusion, “Too much of anything
is bad” applies to the research perfectly. Cell
phone use in controlled environments is help-
ful for productivity and social activities, but can
become an addiction when not used properly.
Geological History of Life
on Earth

Ms. Wicker

Paleontology is the study of ancient organism
by looking at fossils. And thanks to the efforts
of Paleontologist, we have mapped out a rough
timeline for the history of life on earth. My
project is a mobile app that explains the Pale-
ontologist research on that map. By using the
app inventor mobile development environment,
I created a mobile app that is programmed with
menu buttons that switch between screens. The
intent of the app was to organize the history of
life into 4 categories: Precambrian, Paleozoic,
Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. I designed the differ-
ent screens to have a picture in the background
and a description of the categories, along with
a picture of the continents at the bottom of
the screen. The results was a complete user
friendly, informative educational app. I hope to
add more screens to the app that will go more
in depth with the 4 categories I mentioned. This
project has taught me that programming an
app is not exactly difcult but takes patience
and a willingness to be resourceful.
Career TeChnology
34
LM741 Audio Amplier

Mr. Fusia

The LM741 is an Operational Amplier (Op-Amp) that is used to boost electrical signals, such as
low-voltage audio signals. The purpose of this project was to create an electrical circuit to ampli-
fy audio signals, such as from the headphone plug on a smartphone. The circuit was constructed
on a breadboard and uses an LM741 Op-Amp to boost the audio signal from a phone. Due to the
nature of Op-Amps, a transformer was used to increase the voltage of the phone signal before it
reached the LM741. The amplier circuit itself is powered by ~15-20 Volts DC, and uses 4 resis-
tors and 3 capacitors in conjunction with the LM741 and a speaker to increase the audio signal
to a level that can be heard. The amplier successfully increased the audio signal, although there
was a signicant amount of static noise distorting the audio output.
The Bass in Electronics

Mr. Fusia

Speakers are a major part of electronic companies as well as the entertainment and music indus-
try. This global change has made it so that anyone can listen to their favorite songs, albums, and
tracks. We attempted to build a replica speaker using the following materials: a magnet, an Al-
ligator Clip, two Styrofoam plates, and tape. We created a magnetic eld which caused movement
in the plates to produce a crisp and uent sound. The current from the source produces magnet-
ic elds at variable frequencies which can be interpreted as the music you listen to. The magnet
wire we used in the coil produced an electromagnetic eld based on the Hall Effect which in turn
allows the sound to be created. Electronics uses the ideas of voltage and power in physics and
puts them into components that have applications like speakers.
TED Talk Abstraction

Mr. Walstead and Dr. Maloney

This research project is focused on multitasking, following an interest in performing magic which
is all based around misdirection. After some initial research, we hypothesized that multitasking
is not possible. To support this, we designed four experiments to show that multitasking is not
benecial and performed them on our fellow students. Each experiment required a candidate to
simultaneously perform two tasks. For example, one experiment required a subject to arm wres-
tle while attempting to throw tennis balls in a basket. After collecting and analyzing data, the
hypothesis was conrmed. The research was communicated via a TED Talk, which conveyed the
experimental set-up and analysis and visualization of data.
Career TeChnology
35
French Adjectives Quiz

Dr. Kent

When learning a foreign language, it is impor-
tant to study regularly so that one does not
forget the vocabulary. However, one tends to
push it aside due to lack of motivation. That is
why I decided to create a French quiz app that
incorporated a game so that studying French
vocabulary would seem less tedious. The app
consists of two ll-in-the-blank quizzes sepa-
rated by a game similar to whack-a-mole. The
rst quiz is about subject nouns and the second
quiz is about descriptive adjectives. To create
the app I used a mobile programming language
called App Inventor. In my class, we had already
created similar apps so I already knew how to
code my app properly. In between the coding
process, I had to look up photos for the quiz and
create music to enhance my app. Once the app
was done, I had a fully functioning quiz game
that helped make practicing French vocabulary
seem more like a game than a chore. Although
I won’t be putting the game on the Google Play
Store, it ultimately helped me practice a bit of
my own French vocabulary.
Kinematics Calculator

Dr. Kent

Kinematics is the branch of physics concerned
with the properties of motion of an object.
Kinematics can be used to nd the accelera-
tion, initial velocity, nal velocity, distance, and
duration of a moving object; this is useful in
careers in physics such as robotics, mechani-
cal engineering, etc. The purpose of this project
was to efciently solve kinematic problems.
My app was created using MIT App Inven-
tor 2, which lets users make applications for
Android phones. I had to program all of the
kinematic equations and use if/else blocks
for certain conditions. For example, if the user
wanted to solve for the nal velocity of an
object, the equation Vf=at+Vo would be used.
After I nished coding my app, I used my cal-
culator to solve practice problems from www.
physicsclassroom.com in order to check for any
bugs in my program, and I was able to nd a
few bugs and correct them. It was learned that
the kinematic equations can be manipulated in
order to t certain conditions.
CNC Machine Project

Mr. Corvalan

The CNC machine is a device that allows a
person to manipulate and subtract matter from
an object. Over the course of the semester, I
learned how to use the machine to a degree in
which I have prociency in the machine’s me-
chanical capabilities. It was a benecial learn-
ing experience, and I now can teach others how
to use it, while also teaching basic machine
safety. In the future, I would like to develop a
greater understanding of the CNC control sys-
tem, as this would allow us to develop much
more accurately cut work pieces. This method
can be accurate up .005 inches, which is much
more accurate than cutting by hand. Because
of this project, I have gained a greater under-
standing of basic mechanical systems, and has
sparked my interest for years to come.
Investigating Modern
Engineering and Design
Trends through Furniture
Making


Mr. Corvalan

The CNC machine is a device that allows a
person to manipulate and subtract matter from
an object. Over the course of the semester, I
learned how to use the machine to a degree in
which I have prociency in the machine’s me-
chanical capabilities. It was a benecial learn-
ing experience, and I now can teach others how
to use it, while also teaching basic machine
safety. In the future, I would like to develop a
greater understanding of the CNC control sys-
tem, as this would allow us to develop much
more accurately cut work pieces. This method
can be accurate up .005 inches, which is much
more accurate than cutting by hand. Because
of this project, I have gained a greater under-
standing of basic mechanical systems, and has
sparked my interest for years to come.
engineering
36
EnginEEring
37
PVC Tubulum: Creating
Music with Science

Mr. Corvalan

Much thought, ingenuity, and engineering must
go into creating a musical instrument. Our team
of three was able to experience the process of
manufacturing an instrument for the STEAM
Symposium. Our instrument was referred to as
a “Tubulum”, a pitched percussive instrument,
arranged in the semblance of a keyboard. The
design process used in the manufacturing and
assembly of the instrument involved several
steps: First, we had to calculate how long each
one of our tubes would need to be. Then, after
our planning, we got to work on the physical
construction and assembly of the nal product.
This included hand-cutting the tubes to their
proper length, assembling a wooden frame to
harness the tubes, and placing the tubes in
their proper positions. Prior research was re-
quired to gure out how we would go about
creating the instrument. Using the speed of
sound, which changes depending on the vary-
ing condition of temperature, we were able to
derive a formula to more efciently calculate
the lengths necessary. In conclusion, this proj-
ect was a benecial experience for all of us, as
we were all able to experience the process of
engineering design.
Human Trafc Congestion


Mr. Corvalan

With a ve minute time limit, and a penalty at
every late arrival, there is quite an incentive to
rush to through the Wheeler hallways when the
bell rings. Groups of students are pushing in
different directions at different speeds, leading
to chaos and rowdiness at every class transi-
tion. The inspiration for the solution came from
airport runways. The primary way to direct air-
planes on a runway is applying a set route that
planes must travel on. Regardless of the start
and end destination, all planes much travel on
this predetermined path. To apply this to the
problem of the congestion of Wheeler’s hall-
ways, mandatory directions were assigned to
each hallway. These directions were constantly
modied in order to ensure that every class-
room rotation was continuous and convenient.
The nal step was to run trials of the pathways
by walking my class schedule. As a result, most
of the class transitions were longer in distance,
but faster in terms of time taken to reach the
destination. These mandatory directions im-
proved the class transitions, and eliminated all
of the shoving, crowding, and unhealthy inter-
actions between students in class transitions.
EnginEEring
38
AeroFlow Racing - F1 in
Schools

Mr. Corvalan


AeroFlow Racing is the F1 in Schools team at
Wheeler High School. F1 in schools is an inter-
national competition in which teams build a
small model F1 cars to race down a 20m track
as fast as possible propelled by a carbon diox-
ide canister. In the process of making the car,
many different elds of knowledge are required
to ensure maximum success, including engi-
neering to build the car, business and market-
ing to acquire funds, and graphic design to help
build a brand and team portfolios. The rst step
in the process of engineering was designing the
model car using Autodesk Inventor. Then, the
model was extensively rened using Computa-
tional Fluid Dynamics testing and aerodynamic
principles. Finally, the car was CNC milled from
balsa wood and 3D printed wheels and spoilers
were attached. We found that slight changes
in the design of the car could affect the results
and speed of the car drastically. Through this
project, aerodynamic principles in designing a
car along with marketing and branding were
learned.
BB-8

Mr. Corvalan

On November 28th, 2014, the world was intro-
duced to BB-8, a spherical astromech droid on a
mission. In December 2015, BB-8’s purpose and
personality were made known. However, many
things were still unclear, namely how BB-8
works: how fast the droid can go, and if the
droid really has any traction on sand. This ex-
periment did not initially test the droid’s sand
maneuverability, but did nd out how the droid
works and how fast the droid moves, by com-
paring a toy model of him to the dimensions of
the real droid, and calculating the droid speed
based on size ratio. The working capacity of the
droid was determined by viewing the patents
led for both the remote controlled version and
the toy version.
EnginEEring
39
Harmonograph

Mr. Corvalan

The beauty of complex machinery, along with
potential and kinetic energy applications are
the fundamental concepts of the harmono-
graph. The concept of the harmonograph was
introduced to the society in the mid-1800’s by
mathematician, Hugh Blackburn.The harmono-
graph consists of three-rotary pendulums that
work in unison to create complex geometric
gures referred to as Lissajous curves. The
machine consists of a four foot tall wooden
table to support three swinging pendulums.
The design process and the building process
took about one week to fulll. Two lateral pen-
dulums are used to control the arms which is
attached to a pen. The third pendulum is spe-
cial because it is attached to a gimbal which
has 360°of motion. The paper is attached to a
platform that is attached to the third pendulum.
By adjusting the amplitudes and frequencies at
which the pendulums move it creates various
types of drawings. Harmonographs served as
tools of entertainment for people of all ages.
The art created by the harmonograph can chal-
lenge that of a photograph or a painter. The
harmonograph is unique because it has the
ability to create artwork that is not achievable
by a human. It is the art created through physi-
cal motion.
3D printed RC car

Mr. Corvalan

3D printers are currently used primarily for pro-
totypes and custom production pieces. The list
of materials that consumers can print with has
grown rapidly over the past few years and now
there are laments available with almost any
thermoplastic. I took a few of these 3d printing
laments and combined then together into a
3d printed RC car project. For this project, I took
a base frame of an RC formula one car off of
Thingiverse, and I then added in all of the vari-
ous logos and dual extrusion features through
Fusion 360. Once all of the design work was
nished, the components were printed using
several materials. For the cosmetic and body-
work parts of the car, I used PLA which is a
biodegradable plastic that comes from corn.
For drivetrain components, PTEG was used
for its high strength and durability. Finally, for
the tires and suspension dampers, I used TPU
and TPE which are both rubbery like plastics.
Through several testing stages, the optimal
print setting was found for each component.
Throughout this car, various usages of 3D print-
ing were demonstrated along with the different
types of 3D printing materials available to the
average consumer.
EnginEEring
40
Motorized Skates

Mr. Corvalan

Motorized skates are skates that can be controlled with a remote control and allow someone to
move faster without getting tired. It also is safe because we include brakes on the skates them-
selves and a back wheel for extra balance on the electronics. We attached the electronics to the
rear-end and then put a wheel in the back to support the weight of electronics. We used a remote
to transmit data relating to the speed of the skates to them without any physical wiring connect-
ing the skates and the remote. There are two wheels on the sides of the skates, totaling 3 wheels
on each skate. The result of this is a faster and simpler method of traveling. Various concepts
have been learned in electronics, computer science, and overall engineering.
Super Mileage Vehicle

Mr. Corvalan

The purpose of our project was to determine the working condition of the super mileage vehicle
at Wheeler, then x the vehicle and improve particular mechanics to increase the gas mileage. We
decided upon this as our independent project for the semester due to our passion of engineering
and internal necessities to x what is within our capacity to do so. Midway through the semester
as we had found most of the problems when a large complication emerged which we then had
to overcame having to do with handlebar. Do to the time setback, we settled with reinstalling
the pull start due to the safety hazard of starting an engine using an electric drill. From there we
were home free to test the vehicle.
Kinetic Energy Bike

Mr. Corvalan

Our ultimate goal was to create a more efcient way to conserve energy in bicycles. A y wheel
was attached to a standard road bike in such a way that as the main wheels began to brake, the
would-be-lost kinetic energy would simply transfer to the y wheel. We hypothesized that this
shift in energy would result in a boost in acceleration as you started the bike once again. Ty rode
this bike in an open, 100 yard eld with frequent stops and starts to determine acceleration. In
the end, we found a 10% efciency increase in the acceleration.
EnginEEring
41
Prosthetic Foot for Rock
Climbing

Mr. Corvalan

Rock Climbing is a very dangerous and compli-
cated sport. Despite this, it is also one of the
most exciting sports as it is full of adrenaline
rushes and strength. Therefore, a prosthetic
foot for those who require one to perform basic
duties and like rock climbing could use this. I
created a model of this using Autodesk Inven-
tor. In reality this would be made up of various
types of plastics and rubber. To be clear, this is
specically designed for rock climbing and is
made to operate in a rocky environment. This
applies to STEAM because it includes qualities
of engineering, science, math, and art. This was
a difcult design to make and had to include
many different factors to ultimately become a
STEAM project.
Rocket Fuel

Mr. Corvalan

Prevailing rocket technologies revolve around
combustion of fuels such as petroleum, which
could be replaced by rocket engines that utilize
safer fuels with less pollution. This rocket was
the rst step in researching fuel efciency for
numerous fuels that could serve as alternatives
to current fuels. We attempted to substantiate
our hypothesis by testing a rocket comprised
of potassium nitrate and sugar for fuel, kitty
litter to act as an adherent, and a 5” long PVC
body. The potassium nitrate/sugar mixture
had a 65:35 potassium nitrate: powdered sugar
fuel ratio. This was attached to a spring with
constant, k = 27.27 N/m, which was attached to
a 20 lb weight. The rocket was then measured
with a measuring tape to see how far it went..
It was determined that the total output force
was approximately .954 N, and the specic im-
pulse was around 65 seconds, which is a decent
efciency for a rocket fuel. In conclusion, the
rocket was a success since the output force was
0.954N.
EnginEEring
42
F1 in Schools


Mr. Corvalan

F1 in Schools is an international engineering
competition where teams have to design, man-
ufacture, test, and race model Formula One cars.
Teams are judged based on six subsections:
scrutineering, design and engineering, enter-
prise, marketing, presentation, and racing. The
F1 cars were designed on Autodesk Inventor
and tested using Autodesk CFD Flow. The cars
were milled out of foam blocks using a Den-
ford CNC mill and tested using a wind tunnel.
The CFD and wind tunnel results were utilized
to improve the body shape which, in turn, in-
creased the speed. In addition, we also tested
basic shapes in the wind tunnel to determine
which design is the most aerodynamic. From
the testing, we determined that at low speeds
the cone is the most aerodynamic shape and
decided to implement it in our overall car body
design.
Building a Dobsonian
Telescope

Mr. Corvalan

A Dobsonian telescope is a Newtonian reect-
ing telescope that has an alt-azimuth mount.
Unlike traditional telescopes, it manipulates
light with a mirror, not a lens. The purpose of
the project was to build a non-expensive, qual-
ity telescope. The major parts of the telescope
include the body, in which all the pieces of the
telescope are held together; the primary mir-
ror, which condenses the light; the secondary
mirror, which reects the light from the primary
mirror upwards for viewing; and the eyepiece,
the at glass lens through which the nal
image is viewed. Even though it doesn’t use
expensive glass lenses, the telescope doesn’t
cause chromatic aberration (production of many
slightly different images due to imperfect lens-
es resulting in the blurring or fringing of colors)
and is much cheaper to make than a refracting
telescope that uses glass. Together, these parts
make a high-quality, relatively cheap telescope.
EnginEEring
43
The LED Cube

Mr. Corvalan

Light emitting diodes, also known as LEDs, are
found everywhere from clocks to ashlights to
scoreboards. When coupled with a computer,
synchronized LEDs are capable of displaying
any amount of shapes and patterns. In our proj-
ect, we constructed a 7x7x7 cube of LEDs, with
the intent of programming it to display differ-
ent images in 3-Dimensional space. To produce
this product, we soldered the leads of the LEDs
together so that current could be run through
each column of 7 or layer of 49. Once the skel-
eton of the cube was nished, we soldered
jumper wires to the ends of the leads. The
leads of the jumper wires were then attached
to an Arduino Mega microcontroller, which we
used to regulate the LEDs. The Arduino Mega
is programmable directly from the Arduino
programming suite, using a language that is
a combination of JavaScript and C++. The n-
ished LED Cube is a 7x7x7 array of LEDs, each
independently regulated by the Arduino. It can
be used to display any pattern we program it to,
within the boundaries of 7x7x7 LEDs. Through
this project, an extensive knowledge of solder-
ing and DC circuits was developed, as well as a
beginner’s understanding of computer program-
ming.
Bending Water with an
Van der Graff Electrostatic
Generator

Mr. Corvalan

The Van der Graff Electrostatic Generator was
our engineering project this semester. Using the
generator the experimenters performed many
tests and experiments with different set-ups of
the generator. Some of the materials that was
used were water, hair, and metals. With the gen-
erator, we tested the effects of the generator
on these materials and discovered many things.
The water, when there is static electricity near,
is actually pulled towards the static electric-
ity as long as they don’t touch. When touching
the generator, participants’ hair stood on end
due to the electrostatic generator. Finally, when
conductive metals were near the generator the
electricity jumped the gap to the metal. From
these results, we concluded that the electro-
static generator generated static electricity and
had the ability to transfer it to other materials,
either in the form of induction or conduction.
Induction usually occurs between the generator
and insulators while conduction usually oc-
curred between the generator and conductors.
HealtHcare
44
heAlthcAre
Case Study: Kienbock’s Disease

Ms. Hunt

Kienbock’s Disease or avascular necrosis is the loss of blood supply to a patient’s lunate bone-
the central of eight carpal bones that works in conjunction with the ulna and radius- which over
time may lead to loss of wrist function and/or osteonecrosis. This disease can be divided into four
stages that progress from no symptoms to degeneration of surrounding bones and development
of arthritis. Extensive research was done to sufciently analyze a patient’s visit beginning with
their entrance into the doctor’s ofce and chief complaint to their diagnosis and treatment op-
tions; this was then presented as a case study. The patient in this case study suffered from stage
three Kienbock’s Disease because of a prior car accident and had symptoms associated with
movement and grip strength. Treatment for Kienbock’s is aimed towards preventing the progres-
sion of the disease rather than returning the wrist to normal function. At this stage, surgical
methods, such as revascularization surgery and proximal row carpectomy, will likely be employed.
Although Kienbock’s Disease is one without known causes and often goes unnoticed, the conse-
quences are signicant thus further emphasizing the importance of doctors’ visits after traumas.
HealtHcare
45
A Case Report of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Complicated with Lower Respiratory Infection

Ms. Hunt

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, inherited disorder that presents with chronic respira-
tory conditions. Faulty genes affect how cilia grow and function, resulting in an inability to clear
mucus. PCD is a hereditary condition that follows the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
A 19 year old Caucasian male arrived by car to the emergency room with a chief complaint of
chest pain, accompanied with coughs and a fever. Patient history revealed recurrent respiratory
illnesses and as well as a family history of PCD. A review of systems and physical exam showed
signs of respiratory illness. A chest X-ray, sputum culture, and genetic testing was used for diag-
nosis. Genetic testing results were positive, detecting faulty DNAH5 genes. Chest x-ray revealed a
consolidation of the lower respiratory tract and the loss of the diaphragm outline. Sputum gram
stain showed leukocytes and pneumococci. The patient was diagnosed with PCD with complica-
tion of pneumonia. The genetic testing showed a deletion in exon 50 of maternal origin and a
missense mutation in exon 63 of paternal origin. The patient will undergo treatments to help
clear mucus. In addition, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat current pneumonia and prevent
future respiratory infections.
HealtHcare
46
Conquer the EKG

Ms. Hunt

An electrocardiogram (EKG) is a common di-
agnostic tool used in medicine to visualize
the electrical activity of a patient’s heart. The
results provide valuable information regarding
the patient’s cardiac health as well as clues to
other conditions affecting the heart’s activity,
such as electrolyte imbalances or medication
overdoses. The pattern of spikes and dips de-
picted on the EKG readings directly arises from
electrical currents produced by the heart as its
four chambers relax and contact, and digres-
sions from the normal pattern indicate prob-
lems affecting at least one of the chambers.
This project details the procedure for running
an EKG by utilizing a manikin to depict the
correct placement of leads (“wires” that pick up
electrical activity). In addition, it explains how
to interpret the results. With the aid of sample
EKG strips, the project describes the appearance
of a normal reading and compares it to several
abnormalities; then, it analyzes what each of
them suggest about the condition of a patient’s
heart. It was learned that EKGs have a plethora
of applications that reect the interconnected-
ness of the various body systems after all,
abnormalities anywhere in the body, not just
in the heart, can alter cardiac activity and EKG
results.
Emergency Medical
Responder: Trauma
Assessment

Ms. Hunt

Emergency Medical Responders are certied
rst responders; they are usually the rst to
come onto the scene of an accident and provide
basic life support in a variety of situations. In
the case of an accident, such as an explosion,
patients experience severe trauma and require
life-saving care. To simulate an explosion,
makeup was used from specialized kits for
simulating a trauma event. Other materials that
would be at an EMR’s disposal was also utilized
for the purpose of effectively demonstrating
all the steps to save a life - including positive
pressure ventilation via BVM, covering a
sucking chest wound with occlusive dressing,
etc. The patient at hand had several quaternary
and tertiary injuries, including a sucking chest
wound, amputation of the left leg, multiple full
thickness burns, and several cuts and abrasions.
A rapid head to toe trauma assessment was
used and demonstrated to nd and treat all life
threats of the explosion patient. The moulage
was accompanied with a PowerPoint detailing
the circumstances of the explosion and the
steps to treat the patient via Emergency
Medical Responder Standards.
HealtHcare
47
Respiratory Case Study: Coccidioidomycosis

Ms. Hunt

The fungus, Coccidioides immitis is an asymptomatic illness that is generally conned to
the lungs, but in extreme cases it may spread to the bones, joints, lymph nodes, or central
nervous system through the bloodstream. Although appearance of disease-specic symptoms
is uncommon, development of erythema nodosum is a clear indication to perform diagnostic
tests such as Coccidioides complement xation and sputum culture to conrm diagnosis of
Coccidioidomycosis. After conducting thorough research, a case study was created to analyze the
patient’s health and suggest treatment options. The study entirely encompassed the patient’s
consultation from the rst visit to the ER to the follow-up visits after beginning antifungal
therapy. The patient examined in the case study was at a higher risk of contracting this disease
due to old age, Filipino background, and weakened immune system from Crohn’s Disease. While
Coccidioidomycosis will resolve on its own without treatment, antifungal therapy and other
medications are prescribed to help suppress the fungus. Even though less than 200,000 cases of
Coccidioidomycosis appear in the United States each year, it is very dangerous as it can expose
an individual to possibly contracting other diseases as a result of weakened immune system.
STEAM Methods of
Analysis


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier


At its surface, data is simply a collection
of numbers and descriptors; in the form
of a table, data presents little meaningful
information. Statistical analysis and data
visualization parse the numbers to make real-
world observations applicable. During the
course of the Research and Internship class
at Wheeler, students presented 45-minute
lessons detailing aspects of statistical analysis
and constructed methods of evaluating how
well the rest of the class learned. Researchers
tabulated results from one set of completed
multiple-choice assessments in order to keep
track of performance across each question.
This method provides insight into common
misunderstandings to more effectively modify
future lessons and assessment methods. Data
obtained from individual student assessments
were then categorized by accuracy for each of
the ten questions. Five-inch strands of yarn
were cut in both red and green colors: red to
represent an incorrect answer and green to
represent a correct answer. Strings were tied
together, as per accuracy of the answer and
then all ten lengths of yarn were tied to form a
single strand, placed upon a board. Viewers can
then immediately visualize general student
performance as based on color dominance and
contrast.
Communication of
Scientic Research: Written
and Oral


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier


Effective communication is essential to scien-
tic research; it allows one to properly convey
the information and results of their ndings
and ensure that the audience retains that in-
formation. Properly communicating scientic
research is multifaceted; it consists of knowing
one’s audience, tailoring the presentation to
the audience’s learning capabilities, and cap-
turing the audience’s attention. A cumulative
assessment was given to an audience after a
presentation on scientic communication, and
the scores retrieved were modeled into an art
data representation. The model was an adjust-
able mannequin, representative of the audience,
that could be adjusted to an attentive or non-
attentive position. The results from our cumu-
lative assessment displayed that the informa-
tion was effectively conveyed to the audience
with a class average of 97.9 with a 14 student
sample. It was determined that effective com-
munication of scientic research requires both
presenter and audience engagement along with
professional speaking skills, a well prepared
presentation, and concise and relevant informa-
tion. All of these factors help ensure the audi-
ence learns and retains the intended informa-
tion.
internship And reseArch
48
InternshIp and research
49
SDP and EDP Assessment Art Data

Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

The Scientic and Engineering Design Processes are templates with which researchers approach
data or experiments, with the goal of nishing with a reputable end. The SDP is used when a
hypothesis with independent and dependent variables is formed, whereas the EDP is used when
a product with objectives and constraints is created. Our project aimed to teach both of these
processes to the Internship and Research third block, measure their learning through assessment,
and represent the data we collected from them in art data. To teach the content, we presented a
PowerPoint and conducted a tactile activity to better engage the students. To assess the students,
we had the students take a Kahoot with questions on the different steps in the processes. Finally,
to represent the data from the Kahoot, we created a diagram that showed the different scores
the students received with different shapes at varying levels. The result of our project is that the
majority of the students retained the taught processes, as shown by the high average score. In
conclusion, our project aimed to teach the SDP and EDP to a class, assess the class’s learning, and
represent that learning in art data.
Constructing Effective Rubrics and Evaluation

Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Many elements must be present in a rubric for it to be used successfully as an evaluation tool.
Among these are the ability for achievement to be quantied and quantized. A presentation was
given to the students in the third and fourth block Research and Internship class, explaining
the necessary items a rubric must have to be considered a valid evaluation tool. Afterwards, the
students were tasked with creating rubrics of their own. These rubrics, in turn, were scored by a
judge using another rubric, and the results were displayed as plots of score versus frequency.
Intuitively, the students were shown to be more successful in more concrete tasks, such as setting
up an appropriate matrix format, and less successful in elements with many options. In particular,
choosing appropriate methods for differentiating achievement levels shows a large spike in low
scores. Interestingly, results tend to be much more spread out and typically lack any more than
35% of the group receiving the same score. This data indicates that students are able to learn
concepts behind rubric creation; however, putting them to the test yields only average perfor-
mances.
InternshIp and research
50
Rubric Evaluation and
Creation


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier


Rubrics are present throughout all aspects
of life. An important understanding of rubric
evaluation and creation is therefore crucial for
success. This project consisted of a lesson plan,
interactive activity, and assessment all designed
by the group members. The types and com-
ponents of rubrics and the evaluation process
were explained to the class through the lesson
plan and interactive activity. The project cul-
minated in an assessment given to determine
the effectiveness of the lesson. The assessment
results were analyzed and art data was created
to convey these results. The design involved
individual cups that were hung from varying
heights to represent the number of people who
missed each question. The art data clearly de-
picted which questions were most missed, and
further analysis was able to be done into what
content students struggled to understand from
the lesson based on this. The results showed
overall success in understanding of the lesson.
Questions one and six were answered correctly
by the entire class, and the most missed ques-
tion (two) was only missed by ve/thirteen
students. It was concluded that students suc-
cessfully learned most concepts of rubrics, but
additional instruction could further enhance
understanding.
Statistical Analysis of Data


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier


In performing scientic research, it is crucial to
not simply collect data, but to understand the
information that the data conveys. Statistical
analysis is a powerful tool that can be imple-
mented for this purpose. This project focuses
on the numerous methods of statistical analy-
sis, as well as effectively teaching students
who are performing scientic research to use
these skills. The process of teaching students
how to use statistical analysis in their research
involved creating a comprehensive lesson plan.
This included a Microsoft Powerpoint presenta-
tion that explained several statistical analysis
methods, an example of how to apply them, and
a game of Kahoot which served as a data col-
lection tool for how well students understood
the material. Results obtained from the Kahoot
indicated that students were somewhat com-
fortable with the statistical analysis methods
presented, as shown in the artistic representa-
tion of the Kahoot results. As a result of this
project, it was learned that statistical analysis
can be a very useful tool for scientic research,
but most likely requires a more in depth teach-
ing method.
InternshIp and research
51
Teaching the Scientic
Method and Engineering
Design Process


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier


Scientists and engineers use different processes
when conducting projects: either the scientic
method (to perform experiments) or the engi-
neering design process (to create solutions to
problems). When conducting a study or creating
a product, it is important to follow guidelines
set by each process. Students in the advanced
scientic internship and research class were
taught about similarities and differences be-
tween the two in order to understand which
process would be most optimal for a project.
A lesson plan was developed with set objec-
tives to teach students and a Kahoot quiz was
used at the end of the lesson to test students’
comprehension of the information taught. Ten
questions were asked, and data from each ques-
tion was collected and visualized as a three-
dimensional bar graph using foam board. The
results of the test show that most students had
high comprehension scores following the test,
and eight out of ten questions were answered
correctly by more than eighty percent of the
class. This assessment shows that the lesson
was ultimately successful and students were
able to apply the concepts. When conducting
research, these students will know when to use
each process in order to carry out a successful
project.
Data Visualization


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Data visualization is a rapidly growing eld of
study that allow for more effective commu-
nication of the meaning of data in context. In
this project, data was collected from a survey
regarding a lesson on data visualization and
represented in a 3D artistic format. The data
was collected using Google FormsTM, and
students were asked to write their gender, the
subject area of their internship, favorite part of
the lesson, most educational part of the lesson,
how well the lesson was taught on a scale of
1-5, and how receptive they were on a scale of
1-5. The data was then ltered using Google
SheetsTM to search for any notable correla-
tions to emphasize. The data was formed into
a 3D visual display made from various art and
teaching supplies, to relate the art back to the
subject matter. It was found that there was a
signicant correlation between activity pref-
erence and gender, and the data was blocked
appropriately to showcase that correlation. This
was a voluntary response survey, thus conclu-
sions are susceptible to confounding. However,
the data suggests that females in the class
were more likely to prefer the hands on activity
while males tended to prefer the TED talk.
InternshIp and research
52
Understanding Validity


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Validity is an important concept used by re-
searchers and data analysts. Validity is a
measurement of how well an instrument of
measurement performs its task. The purpose
of this project was to teach a class through a
presentation and record their improvement.
To achieve this, the class was given a pretest
before viewing the presentation and a post-test
after viewing the presentation. The presenters
then calculated the differences between pretest
and posttest grades and presented the data
using an art-data model. The results showed
that the class showed a range from 8 percent
to 80 percent improvement on topics discussed
in the presentation. In conclusion, it was shown
that the presentation was effective in commu-
nicating information and the art data served
as a visually appealing way of representing the
gathered numerical information.
Survey Lesson Plan
Research


Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Surveying is an extremely important data col-
lection method when studying how people
react and respond to certain variables. In or-
der to teach surveying to the students of the
internship and research class, we developed a
lesson plan involving a PowerPoint-based lec-
ture and an activity. We then made an activity
to help reinforce our teachings. The purpose of
this project was to analyze data collected from
the overall survey teaching process to create a
conclusion and art data visualization regard-
ing the effectiveness of our teaching methods.
We conducted background research to develop
learning standards, and we then put together
our power point presentation and class activ-
ity. Our activity involved having students make
and administer their own survey, and we made
a rubric to analyze how well each group ap-
plied the taught concepts in their surveys. We
then took the data and made a creative art
visualization by taking the rubric score of each
group and making that an angle of a branch on
a three dimensional Christmas tree. We found
that students made around a C average, so our
teaching methods in our presentation could be
improved so that students can better apply the
information to activity scenarios.
InternshIp and research
53
Data Visualization of Reliability

Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Reliability and validity are crucial elements of any acceptable research. It is essentially dened
as the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. Reliability
consists of two main features: repeatability and consistency. Repeatability consists of redoing an
assessment whereas consistency involves getting the same results after multiple trials. Research
was conducted on the concept of reliability. After the research, a lesson plan was created to teach
the third and fourth block Advanced Scientic Internship and Research class. After this lesson, an
assessment was collected to evaluate how well the class learned. The results of this assessment
are represented through the size of each section on the dart board. Analysis of the data showed
that the majority of students missed between 5-8 questions on the assessment. The original as-
sessment had 20 questions; therefore the majority of students retained about 60%-80% of the
information. Overall, we were able to successfully and effectively teach a concept to our peers
and represent our data in an artistic way. Generic bar graphs would have sufced, but we were
pleased to nd a new way to represent the information. Future applications include improving
teaching/assessment methods to ensure a higher successful learning rate.
Validity and Reliability

Dr. Maloney and Dr. Berkemeier

Validity and reliability is a vital part of research as it insures the integrity of ones results. Validity
refers to the accuracy of an assessment: does your data/conclusion accurately answer your ques-
tion and does your data/conclusion nd what is supposed to be nding? Reliability focuses on
the precision of an assessment, in other words, how consistent is that assessment or data? After
teaching the morning internship/research class about implementing the various types of valid-
ity and reliability into their independent research, a quiz was administered to measure the class’
understanding of the lesson. By using each individual’s answer choices as data points, numer-
ous push pins, representing darts, were plotted onto a target in a manner that allows people to
quickly determine who missed certain questions on the quiz. This method of visualizing the data
allowed viewers to effectively determine the most commonly missed questions, and by who these
questions were missed by. Additionally, this implements a creative way of presenting the data
that would otherwise appear to be boring.
54
lAnguAge Arts
A Comparison of the Botched Autopsy in Chronicle of a
Death Foretold and a Model Autopsy

Ms. Angert

Chronicle of a Death Foretold is a novel by Gabriel Garcia Marquez that follows the after ef-
fects of the brutal murder of Santiago Nasar. In the novel, the town priest performs an autopsy
to determine the cause of death; however, it is botched to the point where Santiagos body is no
longer recognizable. We researched a proper autopsy and compared it to the abnormal autopsy
described, and performed the autopsy on a healthcare training mannequin in order to become
more familiar with the process. In the novel, Santiagos corpse was not properly preserved, but
was instead left lying out on a table in the heat rather than refrigerated and treated with proper
chemicals to aid in its preservation. The priest also failed to preserve Santiagos organs, and
instead removed his intestines and discarded them in a nearby garbage bin only to replace them
with rags. A proper autopsy maintains the organs and the appearance of the corpse in order to
allow a viewing for the family. The autopsy depicted was gruesome and did not represent the
steps necessary when performing and preparing a normal autopsy.
55
TRI Your Change

Dr. Kent


We created a project incorporating statistic and
art standards by creating a game called TRI
Your Chance which incorporates the probabili-
ties of certain outcomes. To build our game, we
had to use wood to make the basic structure.
We created 6 points at which the marble could
fall either way. At the bottom of the struc-
ture are 4 sections each marked with different
points. We decided that to create a strategy for
the player which would increase their chance of
getting more points. We placed an incline be-
hind the board which is used to lower or higher
the board. To determine which height would
get you more points we performed a hundred
trials at four different heights. Through our
trials we discovered that there was a higher
probability of the marble going towards the
two ends if the board was lower. In conclusion,
our project portrays the concepts of probability
while also incorporating art through our pack-
aging.
Pot of Gold

Dr. Kent


We were assigned to create a game involving
chance and probability statistics for AP
Statistics class. To meet this requirement, we
created a simulation lottery game titled “Pot of
Gold. Pot of Gold combines the probability of
getting colors from a color wheel and numbers
from a bingo machine, creating a game with
complex statistics and a low statistical chance
of “winning. Our materials included a bingo
machine, a spinner with fourteen different
colors, crayons of the same fourteen colors,
and betting cards. To play, the player selects a
betting card and picks ve numbers between
zero and twenty. The player then picks ve
colors out of the fourteen on the spinner
wheel and colors the boxes that their chosen
numbers are written in on the betting card
with their chosen colors. The player then spins
the spinner wheel ve times and rolls the
betting machine ve times. Since our game has
a low statistical chance of “winning”, no one
who participated was successful. However, the
participants enjoyed playing the game. As a
result of this project, each group member has
a better grasp for probability statistics and was
challenged to think more creatively.
mAth
56
Math
57
Realm of the Starling: The
Probability Board Game

Dr. Kent

Board games can involve skill, strategy, chance,
or all of the above, and have to be enticing to
look at and fun to play. A game with many fac-
tors, such as cards, dice, and coin ips, can end
up having complex probabilities. The purpose
of this project was to develop a unique board
game and explain the probabilities behind it.
The board game was made with eight pounds
of Play-Doh atop a foam board, which was then
all spray painted to look like an island. Addi-
tional details were added with acrylic paints,
articial plants, bird, toothpicks, and hot glue,
and game pieces were made with the 3Doo-
dler pen. The box was made to one half scale,
rst designed in Photoshop, then printed on A3
paper and spray mounted and folded on a black
poster board. Statistically, it was important to
understand expected value, or the expected
amount of spaces one would move on a given
roll. In the end, art and statistics were com-
bined to create a fun way of learning probabil-
ity. It was learned that a lot goes into designing
board games and the probabilities involved are
more complicated than they appear.
QWERTY Game Project

Dr. Kent


Statistics is an empirical form of math that
deals that analyzing and organization of com-
plex data. One of the foundational concepts
used in statistics is probability. The purpose
of QWERTY was to create a probability game
that was not only fun but also included many
complex probability calculations along with
the wonders of discrete mathematics, a eld
of math that is usually ignored. Using several
artistic techniques, such as warm colors and
its relationship to people’s feelings, the rules
sheet and game board of QWERTY was not only
descriptive, but it was also appealing for play-
ers to look at. The logo was blended with a
Cartoon It!” game box, and used a mix of bright
colors (orange, yellow, and blue). Results includ-
ed successful gameplay of the game by other
people and the understanding of the rules by
other people who have never played the game
before. In conclusion, the game QWERTY is a
fun, visually appealing game that properly used
probability and statistics, along with discrete
mathematics and basic computation, which the
players do in the game.
Math
58
Changing audio frequency
to affect the appearance of
water

Ms. Morton

Sound waves are created through different vi-
brations in the air. Mathematically, these vibra-
tions appear as sine waves. The vibrations that
we hear are translated into sound that we can
process. These same sound waves have enough
force to displace water in various ways. This
experiment was created to test how different
frequencies changes how water moves and to
see mathematically how sound frequency and
displacement have an exponential relationship.
A system was designed where sound displaced
water up the sides of a transparent container.
The system was tested with a variety of tub-
ing to control the water ow including surgical,
PVC, and hydraulic tubing. The sound produc-
tion was also varied with both covered and
uncovered speakers. The hydraulic tubing was
hooked through a hole in the container so that
the speaker could concentrate the sound to
best impact the water. The results of this ex-
periment showed that the water ow was pre-
dictably impacted by the sound frequency. The
water vibrated in sync with the ashing lights
where higher frequencies showed greater dis-
placement on the glass. The conclusion to this
experiment is that vibrational effects of sound
on water work only at certain frequencies but
do show an exponential relationship.
Describing Art Realistically
Through Statistics (DARTS)

Dr. Kent

We created a dart-based game of strategy that
incorporates statistics, engineering, and art
into an all-around fun game. Players attempt
to maximize their points while they maintain a
level of precision with their throws in a creative
mix of random chance and game theory. The
basis is a traditional game of darts with a spin-
ning board, which gives every potential point
value the same chance of being hit. Players can
also choose to stand at the six, nine, and twelve
foot line for a multiplier of 1x, 1.5x, or 2x. Play-
ers also select if they want to throw with their
dominant hand or their non-dominant hand
which gives a +.5x to their score. The materials
we used included a tri fold board, dart board,
2x4’s to support the dartboard, and darts. When
testing the chances of hitting a specic part of
the dartboard, our trials showed that throwing
off hand or at a longer distance signicantly
decreases ones accuracy. D.A.R.T.S is a random-
ized game that allows people of all skill levels
to participate and enjoy statistics in a blend of
engineering and art.
Math
59
Aqua Rotations

Dr. Kent

Game theory is rapidly becoming a powerful
method that can be used in much more than
just simple board games. The calculations as-
sociated with it can be applied to many diverse
elds, such as economics. In our game, simple
experimental probability was used to calculate
the probability of ipping a bottle in a cer-
tain amount of tries. A betting aspect was also
mixed into the game to make the expected val-
ues slightly more complex. Materials included
eleven water bottles with various amounts of
water in them, as well as artistically appealing
packaging. Dice, pencils, and betting chips were
also included to make the game self-contained.
For the results, the expected values for each of
the sixty different playing options were cal-
culated. This showed that guessing that you
would make the ip in two tries had the high-
est overall expected value.
Putting Professors

Dr. Kent


Our probability game was based off of minia-
ture golf, except there are three different balls
and putters, and two different putting surfaces
that the player can use. Each of these balls
and putter types has a different probability of
being chosen, due to unequal sections on a
spinner to determine the putter and different
numbers on a die to determine the ball to use.
In order to calculate who won the game, each
hole was assigned a different value. The outer
holes were worth $30, the second and fourth
holes were worth $20, and the middle hole was
worth $10. The expected value of how much
the player would successfully score was calcu-
lated based off a number of simulations. How-
ever, the expected value was different for each
combination of balls, putter, and surface, which
shows that certain combinations allowed for
a more successful player. In addition, we used
a binomial distribution to determine for each
combination of putter, ball, and surface, what
the probability of successfully shooting the ball
through a certain hole is. Overall, we learned
how to use binomial distributions and expected
value in real life applications.
Math
60
Blackbeard’s Booty

Dr. Kent


Blackbeard’s Booty is a chance-based game in
which players can select from multiple game
modes to try and win some of Blackbeard’s
treasure. Each game mode involves different
procedures players must follow, with each hav-
ing its own chance of success. The materials
used within this experiment include a spinner,
a pair of dice, chocolate coins, and the treasure
chest. The spinner and dice were separately
utilized to allow the user to experiment with
different probabilities with the differing game
modes. The chocolate coins and treasure chest
were used in conjunction for thematic effect,
in addition to the packaging and instructions
of the game. Additional chocolate coins were
meant as prizes. The methodology incorporated
within our game involved the varying game
modes, as well as the schematics used to pro-
duce the physical rendition of the game itself.
The culmination of these methods is able to
enable to player to appreciate and grasp the
scope of the project in terms of the STEAM cur-
riculum. It was learned what methods of prob-
ability are good to incorporate into a game, as
well as the basics of game design and product
design. The nal product incorporated STEAM
standards to create an entertaining game.
Land of Statistica

Dr. Kent

Many board games use probability and chance,
while others allow the player to employ their
own strategy. Land of Statistica has aspects of
both of these game styles, in order to create a
more interesting game experience. Each armed
with a deck of various cards, two players face
off in lane-style combat, with the main goal of
destroying the enemy’s castle. The game board
is a myriad of diverse landscapes, ranging from
cities to deserts to forests, while the cards fall
into ve distinct categories, each with unique
abilities. Both are made out of laminated paper,
which along with the custom box and logo give
the game a professional appearance. We also
calculated the probability that a player would
be able to play any given card on their turn,
based on the chance of rolling specic num-
bers on a die. In conclusion, the creation of this
game was an excellent demonstration of the
probability mechanics that we learned in class,
as well as the artistic principles of logo design
and game packaging. The nal result is a chal-
lenging game based on probability and strategy.
Math
61
Someday My Marble Will
Come

Dr. Kent

“Someday My Marble will Come” is a Disney-
themed game of chance. The game requires
each player to drop a color coded marble down
a tube with multiple platforms containing
holes. The marble will go through the differ-
ent holes to reach the bottom of the tube. The
purpose of the game is to get each marble, or
princess, to their respective princes, which are
placed at the bottom. We used everyday items
such as a toilet paper holder, marbles, and
poster board to create this. In addition to this,
we attached strategies and instructions so that
players can easily follow and play the game.
Our results included the probabilities that we
calculated for each path that a marble may
take. We also completed multiple trials to ob-
serve the probability that a certain prince may
be favored. We observed that this prince was
Prince Eric who matches to Ariel or The Little
Mermaid. In conclusion, we discovered that
repeated trials and calculations can yield differ-
ent probability values and ultimately show just
how chance differs in the real world.
Roll The Dice, How About
That?

Dr. Kent


“Roll the dice, how about that?” is a non-skill
chance based game. The players get two chanc-
es to spin the wheel and roll the dice. The play-
ers call out what number and color they think
the dice will land on. Players can call the same
number and color both rounds, different colors
and different numbers both rounds, a differ-
ent number and same color both rounds, or the
same number and different color both rounds.
Calling the right color or number gives you one
point and if both are right then two points. With
two points the player get a small prize and with
three points a big prize. The game includes, a
spinning wheel with ridges, a twelve sided dice,
and a tri-fold board explaining the statistics of
the game. The chances of winning a small piece
of candy is three percent and the chances of
winning the big prize is about one percent. That
means that ninety-seven percent of the time
the player will most likely lose. Despite such
low chances of winning, six people got a big
prize and thirty people won a small prize. This
shows that given enough trials, the probability
of winning increases.
Math
62
Skillz to Pay the Billz

Dr. Kent

Skillz to Pay the Billz is an enjoyable board
game simulating the real-life situation of pay-
ing student loans while incorporating statistics.
This board game is appealing to people of all
ages and is not only a fun way to pass time
with friends, but also a way to learn various
concepts of statistics. There are two methods
used to play the game: a spinner and a bingo
cage. We created this product by using various
materials including poster board, permanent
markers, colorful papers, cardboard boxes and
double-sided tape. To create an artistically-
pleasing product, we decided to use a variety
of materials. The results of this project gave
us a deeper understanding of probability and
allowed us to see which of our two methods of
advancing up the board proved to be statisti-
cally advantageous. When we presented our
project, we attracted people of all ages regard-
less of whether were familiar with the statisti-
cal background of our game. Overall, by creat-
ing this product, we have had the opportunity
not only to practice the statistical inference and
analysis skills we learned in class, but also to
learn some of the essentials of producing artis-
tically meaningful products and packaging.
Wheeler Roll’Em

Dr. Kent


Art and math work together in many shapes
and forms throughout the digital age. One
example of the connection between art and
math is in many board and video games, where
designs and layouts are carefully thought out
to match the math behind the scenes, which
makes the game function. The purpose of this
project was to make a game based on chance
that was also visually appealing. The game
created was based on a card game known as
Texas Hold’Em. Instead of cards, the game used
dice instead, and had a game board for more
visual appeal. Chips and game pieces were also
added to keep score. A box was also made to
carry all the pieces of the game together, and
was also decorated for visual appeal, with many
colors chosen based on their emotional appeal.
After having a few trial runs of the game, the
game was open for the class to play. Everyone
that tried the game gave positive feedback.
This showed that this game had potential in a
real market. A recommended follow-up project
might be to turn this board game into a mobile
game, to sell in more markets.
Math
63
Real Life Applications
of Sinusoidal Functions
(Music Notes)

Mrs. Grier


A sinusoidal function is a sine or cosine func-
tion. These sinusoidal functions are waves
that depict a smooth oscillation that repeats.
Oscillations are movements back and forth at
regular intervals. Likewise, a music note oscil-
lates and can be represented by a sinusoidal
function. The purpose of this project was to
show the real-life applications of sinusoidal
functions through music by creating graphs to
represent the equation of a music note. These
equations were derived from a base equation
of y=sin[f(2πt)]. To obtain the equation, the
amplitude of each graph was kept at 1 and the
website phy.mtu.edu was used to obtain fre-
quencies for the notes used in the graphs. Then
using an online graphing software, Desmos, and
the gathered data, Desmos created the graphs
of the A3, E4, C#4, A4, E5, C#5. It was discov-
ered that the music notes made perfect sine
waves; and that going up an octave doubles
the frequency of the function. Because of this,
the wavelength gets shorter and the period
decreases. In the end, a better understanding of
how the pitch of a note affects its characteris-
tics was developed and practical uses of sinu-
soidal functions were discovered.
World Tour

Dr. Kent

World Tour is a board game in which players
join their favorite artists on their world tours. It
uses probabilities derived from cards and dice
to establish a board game which is presented
using colors shown around the world. Players
engage in fast-paced, exciting gameplay while
also utilizing their knowledge of statistics to
gain a competitive edge over their opponents.
The project itself consists of the decorated
World Tour box, which contains all the materials
needed for the game including chips, a deck of
cards, dice and the playing board. The results
of our board game is an engaging and eye-
catching project that still portrays advanced
statistical concepts. This project managed to
utilize STEAM ideals externally through its
packaging as well as internally through the
science and mathematics used to create the
fundamentals of the game. Reecting on the
results of the project, we see a game that incor-
porates artistic ideals and statistics together.
Math
64
Kandy Kerplunk

Dr. Kent

Our goal was to build a board game utilizing principles of statistics. The game required using
probability and expected value to determine the strategy and outcome of the game. We built a
“Plinko style game, where the player launches a metal ball into the playing eld, which is full of
pins to randomize the way the ball falls. At the end, the ball falls into one of four holes of dif-
ferent sizes. Each hole gives a different amount of points directly relating to its size (probability
of falling in). Then the player has the choice to spin the multiplier spinner, which gives a 50%
chance to lose all the points, a 33% chance of doubling the points, and a 17% chance of tripling
the points. The multiplier spinner is designed so that the expected value of spinning it is always
higher than not spinning it. People loved playing Kandy Kerplunk, and everyone was impressed
by the build quality. It was built using a CNC router to cut the wood, so it turned out very clean.
The game teaches the player about expected value and probability.
Math
65
Aerodynamics Design

Mr. Ritenour



A remote controlled aircraft was designed and
constructed using spare parts found in school
storage facilities and specically ordered parts.
The design process included a brainstorming
period and a delegation process. The delegated
tasks were then put into a timeline. The time-
line was followed perfectly, which resulted in
our nal product. The entire fuselage had to be
designed in Autodesk Inventor and then using
the schematics produce, a model plane fuselage
was assembled out of foam-board. The remain-
ing parts were then placed in specically de-
signed trays or screwed into plywood supports.
After the assembly was complete, the plane
measured 42” in length with a wingspan of 40”.
These dimensions allow for an adequately sized
plane for learning purposes, yet still suitable
for intermediate to advanced pilots. The project
met the overall goal of providing background
and experience the inner workings of a remote
controlled plane and how they function. The
project also succeeded in teaching the group
how to y a remote controlled aircraft and de-
velop piloting skills.
Musical Audio Signals
Encoded onto Visible Light

Mr. Lawrence

The purpose of this project was to design a
visible light communication device that trans-
mits digitized audio signals over a distance
using a red LED (Light Emitting Diode). This
device proves that light can carry modulated
signals such as music. This light modulated LED
project was divided into two separate circuits;
the transmitter and the receiver. The transmit-
ter consists of audio input source, a modulator,
and an LED driver connecting to the LED used
to transmit the light. The receiver includes a
detector, a demodulator, an amplier, a speaker,
and an indicator. When the audio source is
turned on, the signal makes the LED icker. The
ickering light hitting the detector / demodu-
lator causes it to generate an electrical signal
that varies in synchronization with the icker of
the LED. This signal is amplied and fed to the
speaker, recreating the original sound waves
from the audio source. Using this circuit, we can
communicate wirelessly using visible light as
a transmission media. With the use of a LED as
a light source, we can transmit wireless inter-
net to our devices from the light emitted from
the LEDs. This is a technology is called “li-, or
“light delity.
physics
66
Physics
67
Mobile Project

Dr. Thomas

A mobile is a structure that is suspended in the
air to allow elements to turn freely. The mo-
bile is inspired by American sculptor Alexander
Calder. They are delicately balanced sculptures
that respond to air currents and is a form of art.
It is fairly simple to create a balanced mobile
yourself. Mobiles consist of metal pieces and
hinges with plastic and or paper endings that
can create a pleasing form once assembled. It
requires a delicate and precise hand to balance
and construct. It is wise to know a little about
torque. Torque is a measure of how effectively
a force causes rotation. That force is the verti-
cal weight of the horizontal members in this
case. The result will be a balanced, freely mov-
ing, work of art. When you add a little creativity
into play, you can create unique mobiles. Our
piece resembles a sh bone with sh scales. Of
course, you could use your imagination to see it
differently.
Alexander Calder Inspired
Mobile

Dr. Thomas

Alexander Calder was an artist who forever
changed the art of sculpture by inventing the
mobile. His pendulous pieces moved and re-
volved. This method was unheard of at the time,
but has since inspired artists to incorporate
movement and balance into their sculptures. To
recreate Calder’s style, one must have knowl-
edge of balance, rotation, and torque. Our mo-
bile is suspended from one point using clear
shing line and has four layers of parallel arms.
The arms were made of oral wire and wire
hanger, and we made beads out of modeling
clay to add the weight necessary to balance
the levers. The wire hangers were covered with
green oral tape and decorated with ivy, ow-
ers, and butteries. Once the correct length of
the levers, and weight of each end was deter-
mined, we were able to balance each of the
arms as the owers suspended from them. We
were also successful in creating a sculpture
that is able to revolve by calculating the torque
of the levers. The use of oral elements in our
piece is a departure from Calder’s work, but the
element of balance and motion remains.
VisuAl Art
68
PhysicsVisual art
69
Robotic Art

Mr. Ritenour

A robot was constructed consisting of various
VEX parts which featured ve motors on adja-
cent and opposing sides of its aluminum 12 by
12 inch base attached to wheels using axles
and a sixth motor connected to a marker on
the remaining side using an axle and a curved
metal piece. The position of the wheels enabled
the robot to have a tighter 360 degree turning
radius and the shape of the metal piece al-
lowed the marker to have rotational capabili-
ties so that when driven, the line created by the
marker would mimic the serpentine route taken
by the wheels and the spinning movement of
the marker. This project succeeded in yielding
a result which epitomized the creative mind-
set that our magnet program promotes for the
present and the future.
More Fun with Sumo Bots

Mr. Ritenour


Robotics is a blend of physics, engineering, and
math to develop modern, relevant technology.
Our robotics class has incorporated all of the
previously mentioned, in addition to in-depth
strategy and analysis, as well as hands-on-
experience with different tools for hardware
construction and integrated development en-
vironments to code the robot. In order to test
our skills and solidify what we have learned,
various tasks were assigned to us, not only to
benet our experience, but also to provide a
fun and healthy competitive environment. As
our class was nearing the STEAM Symposium,
we were assigned a project called Sumo-Bots.
SumoBots involves the combat of two robots,
with the intent of one removing the oppos-
ing robot outside of the combat arena. Thus, a
good SumoBot involves a mix of offensive and
defensive structures, as well as agile movement
capabilities. Our SumoBot was designed with
defensiveness in mind. Our robot utilized clever
part manipulation to form a shovel in the front,
in addition to doubled wheels for higher trac-
tion. Robot-C was used to write the driving code
and joystick control. In the end, this project
taught us about the various aspects of robot
design, in addition to developing our teamwork
and brainstorming skills.
roBotics
70
Robotics
71
RoBottles

Mr. Ritenour


The integration of the arts and physics is a
concept that has recently come into the lime-
light due to the rise of the content sharing on
social media. The inspiration for this project
came from videos online that created music
using robots. In this project, glass soda bottles
were lled with water to a specic level. Once
lled, hitting the bottle with a piece of metal
resulted in a specic note. In order to achieve
the desired pitch, “The Tuner Lite” app was used
during a trial and error tuning process. A VEX
robot was made with an arm extending out of
its left side so that it could hit the glass soda
bottles lled with water. The glass soda bottles
were put in a sequence such that they played
the song “Hot Cross Buns”, and the overall musi-
cal component was successful. A recommended
extension to this study would be to suspend
the glass soda bottles so the vibrations that re-
sult from being hit by the robot are not stied
by the oor.
WASPbot: A Sumo-bot

Mr. Ritenour


Building a sumo-bot” is one of the most com-
monly used build projects students use to learn
about building robots. The goal is to build a
robot that can push the other sumo-bot” out of
the ring. Students typically focus on build qual-
ity, power, and gearing to have the best robot.
WASPbot was built using VEX robotics parts. It
includes a motor for each wheel and a simplis-
tic square design to avoid extra parts. The front
includes a low bulldozer-type scoop that goes
under the wheels of other sumo-bots, lifting
them off the ground. WASPbot ended up beat-
ing the other robot in the majority of matches.
WASPbot was, for whatever reason, more pow-
erful than the other robot. It was found that the
design and build quality was most important
engineering aspect to focus on when building a
sumo-bot.
Participating Schools, Teachers, and Students

Ms. Branham, Mr. Foster, and Mrs. Kogan

Mrs. Chericraft

Ms. Duncan


Dr. McGill Ms. Stacy Pitts, Dr. Campoli, Ms. Koch

Ethan (Pope High School)
Ann (Tritt Elementary)
Ellie & Hannah (Eastside Christian)
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Water Rocket
Dr. Campoli and Ms. Stacy Pitts


I wondered how much water will make a water bottle rocket go the highest. I performed twelve
launches with four different amounts of water to see which amount of water gave the rocket
the highest altitude. I used an Aquapod® launcher, a portable battery-powered air pump, and
completed three trials of launches with 250 ml of water with 275.79 KPa of air pressure. This
was repeated at 500 ml, 1000 ml, 1500 ml of water. I made an altitude nder using a protractor,
a sighting scope, and a tripod. For each launch, I used the altitude nder to nd the angle of the
rocket above the ground at its highest point. I turned the angle into altitude using geometry
and graph paper. The volume of water does affect altitude. A water volume of 250 ml gave the
lowest altitude. I concluded that 500 ml and 1000 ml of water tied with the highest altitude.
You should try 750 ml of water to see if you get a higher altitude or the same altitude from 500
ml and 1000 ml of water.
Sphero Robotics
Ms. Stacy Pitts



Vaughan Elementary School’s STEM Lab recently received a grant for Spheros, programmable
robots, from the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association. The demonstration
team has proudly showcased use of the robots at the Atlanta Partnership Day hosted by Dobbins
Air Reserve Base in February of this year. The team has learned and demonstrated how Spheros
can be utilized by our students in grades K-5 and has lead the pathway to other students being
able to program the speed, elapsed time, and angles of obstacle courses engineered by the
students. Higher order thinking skills have been tapped into by doing intricate programming
beyond the regular STEM classroom. These robots support exciting learning in the areas of
math and science, as well as STEM projects for solving real-world problems. Most importantly,
students are preparing for the future work force in STEM elds.
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The Amazing Dog ID Project
Ms. Koch and Ms. Stacy Pitts


I wanted to know if dogs can be identied using their nose prints, like humans can be identied
using their ngerprints. This could help identify lost dogs that have no tags or other information.
First, I got the nose prints of 6 different dogs. I gently dried each dog’s nose with a paper towel,
then used food coloring as “ink” on the dog’s nose. I gently pressed the dog’s nose against
a blank index card to get the actual nose print. I repeated this process with each dog. After
comparing the dogs’ nose prints using measurements, observations and graphing, I learned that
none of the nose prints were exactly the same. They each had different nostril, ridge, length
and width measurements. They also had different shapes and markings. Based on my research,
you can identify a dog by its nose print in the same way that you can identify a human by its
ngerprint.
What Drink Damages Teeth the Most?
Ms. Stacy Pitts


I wanted to see what drink damages the teeth the most. I performed three trials to nd out
what drink damages teeth the most. First I used egg shells in place of teeth and I put them in
Coke, blue Gatorade, apple juice, milk, water, and coffee. The shell in the Gatorade changed in
the most ways. The second time I used egg shells again and the same results showed up as the
rst time. The third trial I used baby teeth and, again, Gatorade had the most affects. I learned
that Gatorade turns teeth blue, makes them soft, causes them to peel, causes them to crack, and
makes them weak. I also learned that Gatorade had the lowest pH at 2.95. My conclusion is that
Gatorade damages teeth the most.
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
Ellie Guthrie & Hannah Durham
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2016-2017 steAm leAdership teAm


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Joseph Wheeler High School
375 Holt Road, Marietta, GA 30068
www.wheelermagnet.com